Cloud seeding is a form of weather modification, a way of switching the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve spil cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the cloud. The usual intent is to increase precipitation (rain or snow), but hail and fog suppression are also widely practiced ter airports, where harsh weather conditions are experienced.
Cloud seeding also occurs due to ice nucleators ter nature, most of which are bacterial ter origin. [Two]
The most common chemicals used for cloud seeding include silver iodide, potassium iodide and dry ice (solid doorslag dioxide). Liquid propane, which expands into a gas, has also bot used. This can produce ice crystals at higher temperatures than silver iodide. After promising research, the use of hygroscopic materials, such spil table salt, is becoming more popular. [Three]
When cloud seeding, enlargened snowfall takes place when temperatures within the clouds are inbetween Nineteen and Four °F ( 7 and 20 °C). [Four] Introduction of a substance such spil silver iodide, which has a crystalline structure similar to that of ice [Five] , will induce freezing nucleation.
Ter mid-altitude clouds, the usual seeding strategy has bot based on the fact that the equilibrium vapor pressure is lower overheen ice than overheen water. The formation of ice particles te supercooled clouds permits those particles to grow at the expense of liquid droplets. If sufficient growth takes place, the particles become intense enough to fall spil precipitation from clouds that otherwise would produce no precipitation. This process is known spil “static” seeding. [ citation needed ]
Seeding of warm-season or tropical cumulonimbus (convective) clouds seeks to exploit the potentieel warmth released by freezing. This strategy of “dynamic” seeding assumes that the extra potentieel warmth adds buoyancy, strengthens updrafts, ensures more low-level convergence, and ultimately causes rapid growth of decently selected clouds. [ citation needed ]
Cloud seeding chemicals may be dispersed by aircraft or by dispersion devices located on the ground (generators or canisters fired from anti-aircraft guns or rockets). For release by aircraft, silver iodide flares are ignited and dispersed spil an aircraft flies through the inflow of a cloud. When released by devices on the ground, the fine particles are carried downwind and upward by air currents after release. [ citation needed ]
An electronic mechanism wasgoed tested ter 2010, when infrared laser pulses were directed to the air above Berlin by researchers from the University of Geneva.  The experimenters posited that the pulses would encourage atmospheric sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide to form particles that would then act spil seeds. 
Cloud seeding has never bot statistically proven to work. An ecologist at Stanford University says, “I think you can squeeze out a little more snow or rain te some places under some conditions, but that’s fairly different from a program claiming to reliably increase precipitation.” 
Claims are made that fresh technology and research has produced reliable results that make cloud seeding a dependable and affordable water supply practice for many regions.  But while practiced widely around the world, the effectiveness of cloud seeding is still a matter of academic debate.  Te 2003 the US National Research Council (NRC) released a report stating, “. science is incapable to say with assurance which, if any, seeding technics produce positive effects. Ter the 55 years following the very first cloud-seeding demonstrations, substantial progress has bot made ter understanding the natural processes that account for our daily weather. Yet scientifically acceptable proof for significant seeding effects has not bot achieved. [Ten] : 13
Referring to 1903, 1915, 1919, 1944, and 1947 weather modification experiments, the Australian Federation of Meteorology discounted “rainmaking”. By the 1950s, the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics switched to investigating the physics of clouds and had hoped by 1957 to better understand thesis processes. By the 1960s, the wishes of weather making had faded only to be re-ignited post-corporatisation of the Snowy Mountains Scheme te order to achieve “above target” water. This would provide enhanced energy generation and profits to the public agencies that are the principal owners. Recently ter 2018, this process had bot used by the UAE for it had bot forecasted that it won’t rain for the entire year ter the UAE [ citation needed ]
Cloud seeding has bot shown to be effective ter altering cloud structure and size and ter converting supercooled liquid water to ice particles. The amount of precipitation due to seeding is difficult to quantify. There is statistical evidence for seasonal precipitation increases of about Ten procent with winter seeding. 
Clouds were seeded during the 2008 Summer Olympics ter Beijing using rockets, to coax rain showers out of clouds before they reached the Olympic city so that there would be no rain during the opening and closing ceremonies,  albeit others dispute their claims of success. 
A 2010 Tel Aviv University investigate claimed that the common practice of cloud seeding to improve rainfall, with materials such spil silver iodide and frozen doorslag dioxide, seems to have little if any influence on the amount of precipitation.  A 2011 examine suggested that airplanes may produce ice particles by freezing cloud droplets that cool spil they flow around the tips of propellers, overheen wings or overheen jet aircraft, and thereby unintentionally seed clouds. This could have potentially serious consequences for particular hail stone formation. 
With an NFPA 704 health hazard rating of Two, silver iodide can cause makeshift incapacitation or possible residual injury to humans and mammals with intense or chronic exposure. However, there have bot several detailed ecological studies that demonstrated negligible environmental and health impacts.   [Legal] The toxicity of silver and silver compounds (from silver iodide) wasgoed shown to be of low order ter some studies. Thesis findings likely result from the minute amounts of silver generated by cloud seeding, which are about one procent of industry emissions into the atmosphere te many parts of the world, or individual exposure from tooth fillings. [Nineteen]
Accumulations ter the soil, vegetation, and surface runoff have not bot large enough to measure above natural background.  A 1995 environmental assessment ter the Sierra Nevada of California  and a 2004 independent panel of experts te Australia confirmed thesis earlier findings. 
“Te 1978, an estimated Two,740 tonnes of silver were released into the US environment. This led the US Health Services and EPA to conduct studies regarding the potential for environmental and human health hazards related to silver. Thesis agencies and other state agencies applied the Clean Water Act of 1977 and 1987 to establish regulations on this type of pollution.” 
Cloud seeding overheen Kosciuszko National Park—a biosphere reserve—is problematic te that several rapid switches of environmental legislation were made to enable the trial. Environmentalists are worried about the uptake of elemental silver te a very sensitive environment affecting the pygmy possum among other species spil well spil latest high level algal blooms te once pristine glacial lakes. Research 50 years ago and analysis by the former Snowy Mountains Authority led to the cessation of the cloud seeding program ter the 1950s with non-definitive results. Formerly, cloud seeding wasgoed rejected ter Australia on environmental grounds because of concerns about the protected species, the pygmy possum.  Since silver iodide and not elemental silver is the cloud seeding material, the claims of negative environmental influence are disputed by peer-reviewed research spil summarized by the international Weather Modification Association. 
Louis Gathmann te 1891 suggested shooting liquid doorslag dioxide into rain clouds to cause them to rain. During the 1930s the Bergeron-Findeisen process theorized that supercooled water droplets present while ice crystals are released into rain clouds would cause rain. While researching aircraft icing, General Electrical (Gij)’s Vincent Schaefer and Irving Langmuir confirmed the theory.  Schaefer discovered the principle of cloud seeding ter July 1946 through a series of serendipitous events. Following ideas generated inbetween him and Nobel laureate Langmuir while climbing Mt Washington ter Fresh Hampshire, Schaefer, Langmuir’s research associate, created a way of experimenting with supercooled clouds using a deep freeze unit of potential agents to stimulate ice crystal growth, i.e., table salt, talcum powder, soils, dust, and various chemical agents with minor effect. Then one hot and humid July 14, 1946, he desired to attempt a few experiments at Jij’s Schenectady Research Laboratorium.
He wasgoed dismayed to find that the deep freezer wasgoed not cold enough to produce a “cloud” using breath air. He determined to budge the process along by adding a chunk of dry ice just to lower the temperature of his experimental chamber. To his astonishment, spil soon spil he breathed into the deep freezer, he noted a bluish haze, followed by an eye-popping display of millions of microscopic ice crystals, reflecting the strong light rays from the lantaarn illuminating a cross-section of the chamber. He instantly realized that he had discovered a way to switch super-cooled water into ice crystals. The proefneming wasgoed lightly replicated, and he explored the temperature gradient to establish the 40 °C limit for liquid water. 
Within the month, Schaefer’s colleague, the atmospheric scientist Dr. Bernard Vonnegut wasgoed credited with discovering another method for “seeding” super-cooled cloud water. Vonnegut accomplished his discovery at the desk, looking up information te a basic chemistry text and then tinkering with silver and iodide chemicals to produce silver iodide. Together with Professor Henry Chessin, SUNY Albany, a crystallographer, he co-authored a publication te Science  and received a patent ter 1975.  Both methods were adopted for use te cloud seeding during 1946 while working for Jij te the state of Fresh York.
Schaefer’s method altered a cloud’s warmth budget, Vonnegut’s altered formative crystal structure, an ingenious property related to a good match ter lattice onveranderlijk inbetween the two types of crystal. (The crystallography of ice zometeen played a role te Vonnegut’s brother Kurt Vonnegut’s novel Cat’s Cradle). The very first attempt to modify natural clouds te the field through “cloud seeding” began during a flight that began te upstate Fresh York on 13 November 1946. Schaefer wasgoed able to cause snow to fall near Climb on Greylock te western Massachusetts, after he dumped six pounds of dry ice into the target cloud from a plane after a 60-mile easterly pursue from the Schenectady County Airport. 
Dry ice and silver iodide agents are effective te switching the physical chemistry of super-cooled clouds, thus useful te augmentation of winter snowfall overheen mountains and under certain conditions, te lightning and hail suppression. While not a fresh technology, hygroscopic seeding for enhancement of rainfall te warm clouds is loving a revival, based on some positive indications from research ter South Africa, Mexico, and elsewhere. The hygroscopic material most commonly used is table salt. It is postulated that hygroscopic seeding causes the droplet size spectrum ter clouds to become more maritime (thicker drops) and less continental, stimulating rainfall through coalescence. From March 1967 until July 1972, the US military’s Operation Popeye cloud-seeded silver iodide to extend the monsoon season overheen North Vietnam, specifically the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The operation resulted ter the targeted areas watching an extension of the monsoon period an average of 30 to 45 days.  The 54th Weather Reconnaissance Squadron carried out the operation to “make mud, not war”. 
One private organization that suggested, during the 1970s, to conduct weather modification (cloud seeding from the ground using silver iodide flares) wasgoed Irving P. Krick and Associates of Palm Springs, California. They were contracted by Oklahoma State University te 1972 to conduct a seeding project to increase warm cloud rainfall ter the Lake Carl Blackwell watershed. That lake wasgoed, at that time (1972–73), the primary water supply for Stillwater, Oklahoma and wasgoed unsafely low. The project did not operate for a long enough time to demonstrate statistically any switch from natural variations. [ citation needed ]
An attempt by the United States military to modify hurricanes ter the Atlantic basin using cloud seeding te the 1960s wasgoed called Project Stormfury. Only a few hurricanes were tested with cloud seeding because of the stringent rules set by the scientists of the project. It wasgoed unclear whether the project wasgoed successful. Hurricanes appeared to switch slightly ter structure, but only temporarily. The fear that cloud seeding could potentially switch the course or power of hurricanes and negatively affect people ter the storm’s path stopped the project. [ citation needed ]
Two federal agencies have supported various weather modification research projects, which began ter the early-1960s: The United States Schrijftafel of Reclamation (Reclamation, Department of the Interior) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, Department of Commerce). Reclamation sponsored several cloud seeding research projects under the umbrella of Project Skywater from 1964 to 1988, and NOAA conducted the Atmospheric Modification Program from 1979 to 1993. The sponsored projects were carried out ter several states and two countries (Thailand and Morocco), studying both winter and summer cloud seeding. From 1962 to 1988 Reclamation developed cloud seeding applied research to augment water supplies ter the western US. The research focused on winter orographic seeding to enhance snowfall ter the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada, and precipitation ter coast ranges of southern California. Te California Reclamation partnered with the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) to sponsor the Serra Cooperative Pilot Project (SCPP), based te Auburn CA, to conduct seeding experiments ter the central Sierra. The University of Nevada and Desert Research Institute provided cloud physics, physical chemistry, and other field support. The High Plains Cooperative Pilot Project (HIPLEX), focused on convective cloud seeding to increase rainfall during the growing season ter Montana, Kansas, and Texas from 1974 to 1979. Ter 1979, the World Meteorological Organization, and other member-states led by the Government of Spain conducted a Precipitation Enhancement Project (PEP) ter Spain,  with inconclusive results due very likely to location selection issues.  Reclamation sponsored research at several universities including Colorado State University, Universities of Wyoming, Washington, UCLA, Utah, Chicago, NYU, Montana, Colorado and research teams at Stanford, Meteorology Research Inc., and Penn State University, and South Dakota Schoolgebouw of Mines and Technology, North Dakota, Texas A&,M, Texas Tech, and Oklahoma. Cooperative efforts with state water resources agencies ter California, Colorado, Montana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, and Arizona assured that the applied research met state water management needs. The High Plains Cooperative Pilot Project also engaged te partnerships with NASA, Environment Canada, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). More recently, te cooperation with six western states, Reclamation sponsored a puny cooperative research program called the Weather Harm Modification Program,  from 2002–2006.
Ter the United States, funding for research has declined ter the last two decades. However, the Lessenaar of Reclamation sponsored a six-state research program from 2002–2006, called the “Weather Harm Modification Program”.  A 2003 investigate by the United States National Academy of Sciences urges a national research program to clear up remaining questions about weather modification’s efficacy and practice. 
- 1947 – 1952: CSIRO scientists dropped dry ice into the tops of cumulus clouds. The method worked reliably with clouds that were very cold, producing rain that would not have otherwise fallen.
- 1953 – 1956: CSIRO carried out similar trials te South Australia, Queensland and other states. Experiments used both ground-based and airborne silver iodide generators.
- Late-1950s and early-1960s: Cloud seeding te the Snowy Mountains, on the Cape York Peninsula ter Queensland, ter the Fresh England District of Fresh South Wales, and ter the Warragamba catchment area westelijk of Sydney.
Only the trial conducted ter the Snowy Mountains produced statistically significant rainfall increases overheen the entire proef. [ citation needed ]
An Austrian explore  to use silver iodide seeding for hail prevention ran during 1981–2000, and the mechanism is still actively deployed there. 
The largest cloud seeding system is ter the People’s Republic of China. They believe that it increases the amount of rain overheen several increasingly arid regions, including its capital city, Beijing, by firing silver iodide rockets into the sky where rain is desired. There is even political strife caused by neighboring regions that accuse each other of “stealing rain” using cloud seeding. About 24 countries presently practice weather modification operationally. [ citation needed ] China used cloud seeding ter Beijing just before the 2008 Olympic Games te order to have a dry Olympic season.  Te February 2009, China also blasted iodide rams overheen Beijing to artificially induce snowfall after four months of drought, and blasted iodide wedges overheen other areas of northern China to increase snowfall. The snowfall ter Beijing lasted for approximately three days and led to the closure of 12 main roads around Beijing.  At the end of October 2009 Beijing claimed it had its earliest snowfall since 1987 due to cloud seeding. 
Ter India, cloud seeding operations were conducted during the years 1983, 1984–87,1993-94 by Tamil Nadu Govt due to severe drought.  Ter the years 2003 and 2004 Karnataka government initiated cloud seeding. Cloud seeding operations were also conducted te the same year through US-based Weather Modification Inc. te the state of Maharashtra.  Ter 2008, there were plans for 12 districts of state of Andhra Pradesh. 
Ter Jakarta, cloud seeding wasgoed used to minimize flood risk ter anticipation of intense floods te 2013, according to the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology. 
Israel has bot enhancing rain te convective clouds since the 1950s. The practice involves emitting silver iodide from airplanes and ground stations. The seeding takes place only ter the northern parts of Israel. 
To toonbank drought and a growing population ter a desert region, Kuwait is embarking on its own cloud seeding program, with the local Environment Public Authority conducting a examine to gauge its viability locally. 
Southeast Asia Edit
Ter Southeast Asia, open searing haze pollutes the regional environment. Cloud-seeding has bot used to improve the air quality by encouraging rainfall.
On 20 June 2013, Indonesia said it will start cloud-seeding operations following reports from Singapore and Malaysia that smog caused by forest and thicket fires ter Sumatra have disrupted daily activities ter the neighboring countries.  On 25 June 2013, hailstones were reported to have fallen overheen some parts of Singapore.  Despite NEA denials, some believe that the hailstones are the result of cloud seeding te Indonesia.
Ter 2015 cloud seeding wasgoed done daily ter Malaysia since the haze began ter early-August. 
Thailand commenced a rain-making project te the late-1950s, known today spil the Royal Rainmaking Project. Its very first efforts scattered sea salt te the air to catch the humidity and dry ice to condense the humidity to form clouds.  The project took about ten years of experiments and refinement. The very first field operations began ter 1969 above Khao Yai National Park. Since then the Thai government claims that rainmaking has bot successfully applied via Thailand and neighboring countries.  On 12 October 2005 the European Patent Office granted to King Bhumibol Adulyadej the patent EP 1 491 088 Weather modification by royal rainmaking technology. 
United Arab Emirates Edit
The UAE is one of the very first countries ter the Persian Gulf region to use cloud seeding technology. It adopted the latest technologies available on a global level, using sophisticated weather radar to monitor the atmosphere of the country around the clock. 
Ter the United Arab Emirates, cloud seeding is being conducted by the weather authorities to create artificial rain.  The project, which began te July 2010 and cost US$11 million, has bot successful te creating rain storms te the Dubai and Abu Dhabi deserts. 
The United Arab Emirates has an arid climate with less than 100mm vanaf year of rainfall, a high evaporation rate of surface water and a low groundwater recharge rate. Albeit rainfall te the UAE has bot fluctuating overheen the last few decades ter winter season, most of that occurs te the December to March period. During the summer months, the prevailing Indian Monsoon drought effect leads to a build-up of cumulus clouds especially along the mountainous terrain te the eastern UAE. 
The UAE cloud-seeding Program wasgoed initiated ter the late 1990s. By early 2001 the Program wasgoed being conducted te cooperation with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) te Colorado, USA, the Witwatersrand University te South Africa and the US Space Agency, NASA. 
Ter 2005, the UAE launched the UAE Prize for Excellence te Advancing the Science and Practice of Weather Modification ter collaboration with the World Meteorological Organization  (WMO). This prize wasgoed thereafter reshaped into the International Research Program for Rain Enhancement Science.
It subsequently became the UAE Research Program for Rain Enhancement Science ter January 2015. The Program for Rain Enhancement Science is an initiative of the United Arab Emirates Ministry of Presidential Affairs. It is overseen by the UAE National Center of Meteorology &, Seismology  (NCMS) based te Abu Dhabi.  Among its key goals are advancing the science, technology and implementation of rain enhancement and encouraging extra investments te research funding and research partnerships to advance the field, enlargening rainfall and ensuring water security globally.
The UAE now has more 75 networked automatic weather stations distributed across the UAE, 7 air quality stations, a sophisticated Doppler weather radar network of five stationary and one mobile radars, and six Beechcraft King Air C90 aircraft for cloud seeding operations. Natural salts such spil potassium chloride and sodium chloride are used ter thesis operations.  At present, the UAE mostly seed with salt particles ter the eastern mountains on the border to Oman to raise levels ter aquifers and reservoirs. 
Forecasters and scientists have estimated that cloud seeding operations can enhance rainfall by spil much spil 30 to 35 vanaf cent te a clear atmosphere, and by up to Ten to 15 vanaf cent ter a turbid atmosphere. 
A total of 187 missions were sent to seed clouds te the UAE te 2015, with each aircraft taking about three hours to target five to six clouds at a cost of $Trio,000 vanaf operation 
North America Edit
United States Edit
Ter the United States, cloud seeding is used to increase precipitation te areas experiencing drought, to reduce the size of hailstones that form ter thunderstorms, and to reduce the amount of fog te and around airports. Ter the summer of 1948, the usually humid city of Alexandria, Louisiana, under Mayor Carl B. Close, seeded a cloud with dry ice at the municipal airport during a drought, quickly 0.85 inches of rainfall occurred. 
Cloud seeding is at times used by major ski resorts to induce snowfall. Eleven western states and one Canadian province (Alberta) have ongoing weather modification operational programs [Three]. Te January 2006, an $8.8 million cloud seeding project began ter Wyoming to examine the effects of cloud seeding on snowfall overheen Wyoming’s Medicine Bow, Sierra Madre, and Wind Sea mountain ranges. 
The US signed an international treaty te 1978 banning the use of weather modification for hostile purposes. [Sixty-nine]
During the sixties, Irving P. Krick &, Associates operated a successful cloud seeding operation ter the area around Calgary, Alberta. This utilized both aircraft and ground-based generators that pumped silver iodide into the atmosphere te an attempt to reduce the threat of hail harm. Ralph Langeman, Lynn Garrison, and Stan McLeod, all ex-members of the RCAF’s 403 Squadron, attending the University of Alberta, spent their summers flying hail suppression. The Alberta Hail Suppression Project is continuing with C$Three million a year ter funding from insurance companies to reduce hail harm te southern Alberta. 
France and Spain Edit
Cloud seeding began te France during the 1950s with the intent of reducing hail harm to crops. The ANELFA project consists of local agencies acting within a non-profit organization.  A similar project ter Spain is managed by the Consorcio por lade Lucha Antigranizo den Aragon.  The success of the French program wasgoed supported by insurance gegevens, that of the Spanish program te studies conducted by the Spanish Agricultural Ministry. 
The Soviet Union created a specifically designed version of the Antonov An-30 aerial survey aircraft, the An-30M Sky Cleaner, with eight containers of solid doorslag dioxide te the cargo area plus outward pods containing meteorological cartridges that could be fired into clouds.  Soviet military pilots seeded clouds overheen the Belorussian SSR after the Chernobyl disaster to eliminate radioactive particles from clouds heading toward Moscow.  Presently, An-26 is also used for cloud seeding.  At the July 2006 G8 Summit te St. Petersburg, Voorzitter Putin commented that air force jets had bot deployed to seed incoming clouds so they rained overheen Finland. Rain soaked the summit anyway.  Ter Moscow, the Russian Airforce attempted seeding clouds with bags of cementlaag on June 17, 2008. One of the bags did not pulverize and went through the roof of a house.  Te October 2009, the Mayor of Moscow promised a “winter without snow” for the city after exposing efforts by the Russian Air Force to seed the clouds upwind from Moscow via the winter. 
Ter Germany civic engagement societies organise cloud seeding on a region level. A registered society  maintains aircraft for cloud seeding to protect agricultural areas, for example te wine growing areas, ter the district Rosenheim, the district Miesbach, the district Traunstein (all located te southern Bavaria, Germany) and the district Kufstein (located ter Tyrol, Austria). Another society for cloud seeding operates te the district of Villingen-Schwenningen. 
Ter Slovenia oldest aeroclub: Letalski center Maribor carries air defense against hail. The cessna 206 is tooled with outer aggregates and flares for flying. The purpose of the defense is to prevent harm to farmland and cities. They have bot carrying out defense since 1983. Silver iodide is used spil a reagent. The base is at Maribor Edvard Rusjan Airport.
Te Australia, summer activities of CSIRO and Hydro Tasmania overheen central and western Tasmania inbetween the 1960s and the present day show up to have bot successful.  Seeding overheen the Hydro-Electricity Commission catchment area on the Central Plateau achieved rainfall increases spil high spil 30 procent te autumn. The Tasmanian experiments were so successful that the Commission has regularly undertaken seeding everzwijn since ter mountainous parts of the State.
Te 2004, Snowy Hydro Limited began a trial of cloud seeding to assess the feasibility of enlargening snow precipitation ter the Snowy Mountains ter Australia.  The test period, originally scheduled to end te 2009, wasgoed zometeen extended to 2014.  The Fresh South Wales (NSW) Natural Resources Commission, responsible for supervising the cloud seeding operations, believes that the trial may have difficulty establishing statistically whether cloud seeding operations are enlargening snowfall. This project wasgoed discussed at a summit ter Narrabri, NSW on 1 December 2006. The summit met with the intention of outlining a proposal for a 5-year trial, focusing on Northern NSW.
The various implications of such a widespread trial were discussed, drawing on the combined skill of several worldwide experts, including representatives from the Tasmanian Hydro Cloud Seeding Project however does not make reference to former cloud seeding experiments by the then-Snowy Mountains Authority, which rejected weather modification. The trial required switches to NSW environmental legislation ter order to facilitate placement of the cloud seeding apparatus. The modern proef is not supported for the Australian Alps.
Te December 2006, the Queensland government of Australia announced a $7.6 million ter funding for “warm cloud” seeding research to be conducted jointly by the Australian Lessenaar of Meteorology and the United States National Center for Atmospheric Research.  Outcomes of the probe are hoped to ease continuing drought conditions ter the states South East region.
Te Mali and Niger, cloud seeding is also used on a national scale.  
Te 1985 the Moroccan Government embarked with a Cloud seeding program called ‘Al-Ghait’. The system wasgoed very first used te Morocco te 1999, It has also bot used inbetween 1999 and 2002 ter Burkina Faso and from 2005 ter Senegal. For this program two aircraft were tooled with special instruments:
An unknown Beech King Air, which holds cloud physics and seeding equipment RMAF’s Alpha Jet No 245, which only holds the seeding equipment.
Cloud seeding has bot the concentrate of many theories based on the belief that governments manipulate the weather ter order to control anything from global heating, populations, and military weapons testing, to public health, and flooding.